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India Facts - General

Country Name
Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya

Location
The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south.

Geographic Coordinates
Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7' and 97° 25' longitudes east of it. Distance: North-South: 3.214 km, East-West: 2.933 km

Indian Standard Time GMT + 05:30

Area 3.3 Million sq. km

Telephone Country Code +91

Border Countries
Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Coastline
7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Terrain
The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.
 

Country Expanse Population
India 3.287.263 km² 1 Billion(2000)
Europe 2.400.000 km² 340.000.000
Germany 357.000 km² 79.500.000

Population
India's population, as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,028 million (532.1 million males and 496.4 million females).

Nationality
Indian

Ethnic Groups
All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.

Religions
According to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1.028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.

Languages
There are 22 National Languages have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is the Official Union Language. Besides these, there are 844 different dialects that are practiced in various parts of the Country.

Literacy
According to the provisional results of the 2001 census, the literacy rate in the Country stands at 64.84 per cent, 75.26% for males and 53.67% for females.

Government Type
Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.

Capital
New Delhi

Administrative Divisions
28 States and 7 Union Territories.

Independence
15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)

Constitution
The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. 

Legal System
The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.

Executive Branch
The President of India is the Head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry.

Legislative Branch
The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.

Judicial Branch
The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.

Flag Description
The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.

National Holidays
26th January (Republic Day)
15th August (Independence Day)
2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthda

India Facts - Nature

Mountains

  • Himalaya 2400 km long between 240 and 320 km wide
    Kanchenjunga (8534 m)
  • Aravalli Ranges (Rajasthan)
    Mount Abu (1219 m)
  • Eastern Ghats (Height ca 610m)
  • Western Ghats (Height 915- 1220m, some Mountains upto 2440m)

Rivers (Total Lenghth)

  • Ganges 2.510 km 
  • Brahmaputra 2.900 km

Forests

  • 770.100 km² about 23,4% of total area

Deserts

  • 200.000 km² about 1/3 cultivable

Flora

  • 45.000 different Species
  • 15.000 Vascula Flora about 35% endemic

National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries

  • 80 Nationalparks
  • 441 Wildlife Sanctuaries
  • about 23 Tigerreserves (Project Tiger)
  • c. 40.000 Tigerpopulation end of 19. Century
  • c. 2.000 in the 70's
  • c. 6.000 today
  • consists 60 % of the worldwide tigerpopulation

Fauna

  • 65.000 different Species:
    Fishes: 2.500
    Amphibians: 150
    Reptiles: 350
    Birds: 2.100
    Mammals: 350
     
  • Special: Tiger, Asian Lion, Elephant, Four horn antilope (Choushinha), One horn Rhinoceros, three different Leopard (snow Leopard), black an brown Bear, Yak, Tapir, Moschusdeer, Sibirischer Kranich, Indian Wild ass, Indian Bison (Gaur), Indian Buffalol (Nigail), largest Red wild population of the world (8 different Species), Crocodiles, among it the Gangesgharial, found only in India
 
 
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